Nearly all NIH grants are given to institutions rather than to individuals. The responsibilities of a PI are also the responsibilities of the University under a grant. The IBC, appointed by and advisory to the Vice President for Research, acts on behalf of the University in this regard to ensure compliance with the Guidelines. It is the responsibility of the University to establish procedures that the IBC must follow in the review and approval of applications, proposals and activities. The BSO (Biological Safety Officer), as a member of the IBC, assists the University in meeting the institution’s safety obligations in this area.